No. You can only apply for an eTA using a valid passport issued to you by your country of citizenship or nationality.
Exception: If you are a permanent resident of the U.S. (Green Card holder) and cannot get a passport from your home country because it does not issue passports to permanent residents of other countries, you can apply with:
- your U.S. Refugee Travel Document (I-571), or
- your Permit to Re-enter the United States (I-327).
Find out if your document is a passport
Look at the front cover of the document. The word “passport” should appear on the cover.